slag cement uses

Steelmaking slag can also be used as raw material for coagulant preparation. In some countries experience has found that steelmaking slags with a free CaO content upto 7 % may be used in unbound layers and upto 4 % in asphaltic layers. ), in the primary steelmaking processes (basic oxygen furnace, electric arc furnace, and induction furnace), slag formed during the secondary refining processes (this slag is sometimes called ?secondary refining slag? Knowledge of the chemical, mineralogical, and morphological properties of steelmaking slag is necessary since their cementitious and mechanical properties play a vital role in its utilization. The fineness of slag is also an important factor influencing the activity, and the potential cementitious property of slag fines significantly increases with their fineness. Usage in sinter mix -Steelmaking slag contains high percentage of CaO (mostly above 50 %). The use of iron and steel slag has a long tradition in Japan [4]. Enter your e-mail address and your password. Steelmaking slag is mainly calcium alumino silicate. With cement being the costliest ingredient, substituting fly ash or slag can help maintain a stronger mix at a lower cost. (ISC) process in which the hot slag is first poured into a steel box for accelerated cooling/solidification and then subjected to water sprinkling and immersion cooling, and the rapid cooling process in which the liquid slag is poured into a special drum and cooled rapidly by sprinkling water over the slag. These inactive materials, referred to as free CaO and free MgO, react with water, and, in the process, their volume nearly doubles through hydration. The normal ratios of aggregates and water to cementitious material in the mix remain unchanged. The first recorded production in the US of blended cement containing both slag and portland cement was in 1896 對\⠀䄀䌀䤀 ㈀ ㄀㄀尩. The density of steelmaking slag lies between 3.2 grams per cubic centimeters (g/cc) to 3.6 g/cc. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The grindability index of steelmaking slag is 0.7, in contrast with the value of 0.96 and 1.0 for blast furnace slag and standard sand respectively. Every type of cement has their own properties, advantages, and disadvantages. Usage in the production of cement and concrete – The presence of C3S, C2S and C4AF endorse steelmaking slag cementitious properties. The use of slags in raw mixes increased the mechanical strength of cements by over 50%. 1 Introduction. Ground granulated slag reacts with a calcium byproduct created during the reaction of Portland cement to produce cementitious properties. Slag cement is used in concrete for virtually any construction application, either in conjunction with traditional portland cement, part of blended cement or as a separate component. It is of particular importance that CaO and MgO contained in the flux remain partly inactive in in the slag or crystallize while the slag is solidified and cooled. It is advantageous to separate this scrap from the slag for the purpose of recycling the recovered scrap in the primary steelmaking process for making the slag free from scrap for its various applications. GGBS is used as a direct replacement for Portland cement, on a one-to-one basis by weight. Usage in hot metal dephosphorization – Nippon Steel Corporation (NSC) has developed the MURC (Multi-Refining Converter) process, in which dephosphorization and decarbonization are conducted in the same converter. However, the produced quantity of blast furnace slag decreased from 25.4 Mta in 2007 to 23.0 Mta in 2017, but the proportion of granulated slag rose slightly from 82.6 % to 84.4 %. Slag cement, previously known as ground-granulated blast-furnace slag \⠀䜀䜀䈀䘀匀尩, has been used in concrete for well over 100 ye\ൡrs \⠀䄀䌀䤀 ㈀ ㄀㄀尩. Steelmaking slag has several applications. Usually, this is performed in a cooling yard by air cooling and moderate water sprinkling. google_ad_width = 300; Fig 2 Schematic flowsheet for slag processing. Slag is primarily used in the cement and construction industries, and largely in road construction. Several studies have been made for the technological condition of CO2 sequestration with steelmaking slag slurry, including reaction time, liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), temperature, CO2 pressure, and initial pH. The artificial reefs show a high stability in seawater due to the fact that it consists of CaCO3, like shells and coral, and they act as great breeding habitats for seaweeds and coral. As steelmaking slag is formed, it is in a molten or red-hot state at temperatures ranging from 1,300 deg C to 1,700 deg C. This slag is immediately subjected to the cooling process upon removal. In contact with water, free CaO and MgO in steelmaking slag react to hydroxides. Steelmaking slag can be used for desulphurization due to its high CaO, especially free CaO content. A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together. Join the Global Slag LinkedIn group . PSC has the lower evolution of heat. Uses in for materials of waste water treatment – Steelmaking slag presents porous structure and large surface area. which uses high-temperature steam, ?hot water aging treatment? Slag cement is a recovered byproduct of the iron manufacturing process and can be used to replace a portion of portland cement in concrete mix design. In addition, it is easy to separate from water due to its high density. Hence, carbon capture and storage (CCS) research has been the focus of CO2 reduce technology. Super Sulfate Cement: 13. Uses in flue gas desulphurization and CO2 capture – The method of flue gas desulphurization includes wet process, dry process and semi-dry process, among which wet limestone/lime method is most widely used. Slag cement is a hydraulic cement formed when granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is ground to suitable fineness and is used to replace a portion of portland cement. The use of slag as partial replacement of cement in slag cement mortar exposed to artificial sea water environment has been studied particularly form the development of the compressive strength point of view. Further in order to increase the scrap recovery ratio and to improve the quality of scrap recovered, the crushing and magnetic separation process is repeated several times. Thus, it can be used in mass concrete structures such as retaining walls, foundation, and dams. Processed steelmaking slag has favourable mechanical properties for aggregate use, including good abrasion resistance, good soundness characteristics, and high bearing strength. Tab 3 lists the relationship between the characteristics and application areas of steelmaking slag. In this paper, an overview of the recent achievements and challenges of using steel slags (BOF, EAF and LF slag) as cement replacement (usually ground into powder form with the size of 400–500 m 2 /kg) and aggregate in cement concrete is presented. These are described below. Due to the high heat capacity, steelmaking slag aggregates have been observed to retain heat considerably longer than conventional natural aggregates. The combined use of steelmaking slag and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can decompose organic pollutions due to the ferrous ion produced from FeO in steelmaking slag reacting with H2O2 to form Fenton’s reagent which has strong oxidation. These include the air granulation process, in which a high pressure gas is blown onto the liquid slag to solidify and granulate the slag while it is being cooled, the ?instantaneous slag chill? In terms of their physical and chemical properties, slags … For constructions meant for water retaining such as rivers, retaining wall, harbors, tunnels for improvement in impenetrability. Ground granulated slag is often used in concrete in combination with Portland cement as part of a blended cement. Colored Cement: 10. Ground slag cement by end use and Portland Clicker replacement was projected more than 40% of overall global ferrous slag production volume in … GGBS cement can be added to concrete in the concrete manufacturer's batching plant, along with Portland cement, aggregates and water. In appearance, steelmaking slag looks like a loose collection, and appears hard and wear-resistant due do its high Fe (iron) content. They have moderate water absorption (less than 3 %). \ Uses in agriculture – Steelmaking slag has fertilizer components CaO, SiO2, and MgO. google_ad_client = "ca-pub-7057920448327527"; In addition, steelmaking slag as a separated adsorbent can be used to remove aqueous ammonium nitrogen, phosphorous, and phenol. Steelmaking slag and air-cooled BF slag have appearance and characteristics similar to those of crushed rock or sand, and taking advantage of these proper-ties, they are used for civil construction applications such as road base course, materials for civil engineering works, and the aggregate for concrete. The results suggest that the cementitious ability of all steel slags in concrete is low and requires activation. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Alkaline activation of the slag was achieved using four different solutions: Na 2 CO 3 , NaOH, Na 2 SO 4 and an industrial waterglass solution (modulus 3.29). Its bulk density is in the range of 1.6 tons per cubic metres (t/cc) to1.9 t/cc. Hence, the application of steelmaking slag in industrial waste water treatment has received intensive attention in recent years. The benefits of using slag cement include: Improved … A study on wet flue gas desulphurization with steelmaking slag powder has shown that by a reasonable design and suitable operation, the steelmaking slag used in wet desulfurization rate can reach more than 60 %. The slag generated in the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and electric arc furnace (EAF) is of basic nature while the slag is of acidic nature in induction furnace because of the use of silica ramming mass as the lining material. Its alkaline property neutralizes soil acidity. Hence, steelmaking slag ground into fine powder can be used as cement additives and concrete admixtures. used as the raw material for BF slag cement. Steelmaking slag contains around 10 % of scrap which comes from the refining process or from some of the processing vessel (e.g. Keywords Slag Cement Clinker phases Microstructure Download conference paper PDF. 2003). Fly ash is usually limited to 20 or 30 percent. The use of slag is clearly regulated for particular applications. It is generally accepted that the cementitious properties of steelmaking slag increases with its basicity. Portland slag cement can be used for all purposes for which ordinary Portland cement is used. It is produced in large quantities during steel-making operations that use electric arc furnaces. Air Entraining Cement. Usage in road and hydraulic construction – Steelmaking slag can be processed to aggregates of high quality comparable with those of natural aggregates because of its high strength and durability. Create your account. It can be used as fluxing agent in the iron ore sintering process where it replaces lime and limestone. It is produced during the separation of the liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace and is a non-metallic by-product of steelmaking process. In some of the countries, steelmaking slag is used to produce siliceous fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and micronutrient fertilizer. The utilization of the steelmaking slag is closely related to its chemical and physical characteristics. or ?ladle slag? Uses of Blast-Furnace Slag Cement Used in ready mix concrete plants. Depending on the rate of free CaO and/or free MgO this reaction causes a volume increase of the slag mostly combined with a disintegration of the slag pieces and a loss of strength. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The processing of the steelmaking slag (Fig 1) is normally carried out by (i) solidifying and cooling of the hot liquid slag, (ii) crushing and magnetic separation treatment of the slag to recover the scrap, (iii) crushing and classification of the slag for grain size adjustment to manufacture the slag product, and (iv) aging treatment of the slag product for improving its quality and volumetric stability. Steel slag is an industrial byproduct obtained from the steel manufacturing industry. ), and slag formed in tundish during continuous casting of steel (also known as tundish slag). 15th Global Slag Conference, Exhibition & Awards 16 - 17 June 2021, Vienna 'Maximising profits from slag' #globalslag. /* 300x250, created 1/18/11 */ Used in mass concreting works such as dams, foundations which require low heat of hydration. Both are used as a replacement for a portion of the portland cement. The chemical composition of steelmaking slag varies with the furnace type, steel grades and pretreatment method. Also, a suitable addition of steelmaking slag can reduce the firing temperature needed for clay bricks. How GGBS cement is used. Hence, after cooling, the slag is crushed and the scrap is recovered by magnetic separation. Steelmaking slag contains a large amount of CaO so it is possible to store CO2 in carbonates forms using steelmaking slag slurry with mild conditions of temperature and CO2 pressure. 15. Immersion expansion ratio is used to evaluate the volume stability of steelmaking slag in some countries while in some other countries steam test is taken to measure that of steelmaking slag used for road construction and boiling test for hydraulic construction. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Characteristics of steel slags and their use in cement and concrete—A review. Blast Furnace Slag Cement: Definition: Properties: Uses: 8. The Slag cement is more resistant to the attack of weathering agencies. 7 High Sensitiveness to Moist Heat at Hardening . The use of steelmaking slag can enhance Marshall Stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength, resistance to moisture damage and resistance to permanent deformation of CIR (Cold In Place Recycling) mixes. The heat retention characteristics of steelmaking slag aggregates can be advantageous in hot mix asphalt repair work. In this paper, an overview of the recent achievements and challenges of using steel slags (BOF, EAF and LF slag) as cement replacement (usually ground into powder form with the size of 400–500 m2/kg) and aggregate in cement concrete is presented. The high bulk density, the high level of strength and abrasion as well as the rough texture of steelmaking slag makes it a suitable as a construction material for hydraulic engineering purposes. The steelmaking slag is composed mainly of calcium oxide (CaO) and silica (SiO2). Tab 1 summarizes the chemical composition of BOF slag and EAF slag. The use of slag cement has demonstrated long-term performance enhancements allowing designers to reduce the environmental footprint of concrete while ensuring improved performance and increased durability. In this process, around 50 % of decarbonization slag is retained in the converter after the decarbonization process and hot recycled as dephosphorization and desiliconization slag for the next heat, resulting in increased dephosphorization efficiency and decreased CaO consumption. Higher 28-day strength. 3.3 Japan. To check for suppliers in your area, use the SCA’s slag cement locator. In recent years, steam aging treatment or high pressure aging treatment is often applied to steelmaking slag to ensure moderate, uniform expansion of the slag, especially when the slag is to be used, for example, for road base course material, where expansion can become a major problem. The results suggest that the cementitious ability of all steel slags in concrete is low and requires activation. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Molten slag diverted from the iron blast furnace is rapidly chilled, producing glassy granules that yield desired reactive cementitious characteristics when ground into … It will take less then a minute, Bulk Material Storage and Storage Yard Machines, Technological and other processes/equipments associated with steel industry, Management in steel plant along with training and development, Raw materials and other materials used in steel plants, Marketing Concepts and Comparison with Selling Concepts, Role of Safety and its Importance in a Steel Organization, Role of Leadership in the Management of Organizations, Hard, wear resistant, adhesive, and rough, Aggregates for hydraulic construction and road, Cementitious components (C2S, C3S, and Ca4AF), Fertilizer components (CaO, SiO2, MgO, FeO), Los Angeles abrasion (ASTM C131) – 20 % to 25 %, Sodium sulphate soundness loss (ASTM C88) – Less than 12 %, Angle of internal friction – 40 degrees to 50 degrees, Hardness – 6 to 7 Moh’s scale of mineral hardness, California Bearing ratio (CBR) – Upto 300 for maximum size of 19 mm. The use of slag in the process of sintering improves the quality, reduce fuel consumption due to the heat liberation of Fe and FeO oxidation reaction, and decrease the cost of sinter. The first is the normal aging treatment, in which the hydration reaction is allowed to take place by nature in the yard, while the second process consists of accelerated aging treatment in which the hydration reaction is induced to complete in a shorter period of time. Slags are one of the most natural products of all. There are two methods of aging treatment. It gives a smooth finish because the cement particles are more fineness. Some typical mechanical properties of steelmaking slag are as follows. They can be categorized into basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag, electric arc furnace (EAF) slag, and ladle furnace (LF) slag. Various slag cement ratios (100:0, 85:15, 70:30 and 55:45) as well as different water binder ratios (0.42, 0.46 and 0.50) have been used to get the idea for optimum mix ratio. Slag cement has good heat durability that can be used to prepare heat-resistant concrete because it contains a little calcium hydroxide after hardening and it is also the fire-resistant additive. Water Proof Cement. It is a recovered industrial by-product of an iron blast furnace. Conference themes. Any waste can be considered as secondary material resources, which may be fully or partially (as additives) used in production (Klassen et al. Replacement levels for GGBS vary … Teeming ladle, or tundish ) and tiles and slag cement uses powder can used... Using slag cement has their own properties, advantages, and dephosphorization etc shape and have rough surface.... Byproduct created during the steelmaking processes the added flux for the refining of the most common as. The range of 1.6 tons per cubic metres ( t/cc ) to1.9.... Be used as a loose aggregate and can be added to concrete in combination Portland... Cement locator, retaining wall, harbors, tunnels for improvement in impenetrability research stage concrete projects which., cadmium, lead, copper, and high bearing strength raw mixes increased mechanical. Was combined with slaked lime and used as a constituent of concrete cement... Is very important for Portland cement pretreatment processes ( desulphurization, desiliconization, and mercury performed a... Results suggest that the cementitious ability of all of weathering agencies 2021, Vienna 'Maximising profits from slag ' globalslag... Cubic centimeters ( g/cc ) to 3.6 g/cc as rivers, retaining wall,,. Levels for ggbs vary … uses of Blast-Furnace slag cement, previously known as ground-granulated Blast-Furnace slag cement in! More fineness during steelmaking, slag is a key criterion for using steelmaking slags as replacement. Because of its make oxygen furnace constituent of concrete and cement ore sintering process where it replaces and. Paper PDF arc furnaces Star Web Maker of copper using steelmaking slags as a loose aggregate and can achieved. Slag produced is further processed by the process of crushing and classification separated can! Loose aggregate and can be used as a mortar for easier placement and finishing TM... This compound contains elements like sulphur, selenium, carbon, cadmium, lead copper! Compacted or grounded into smaller particles fertilizer and micronutrient fertilizer mix concrete.... For seaweed/coral breeding have been developed laboratory research stage former has certain advantages: it has lower heat and. ; Improves workability the use as aggregates and water to cementitious material in the cement particles more. Slag for mercury phases Microstructure Download conference paper PDF number of more efficient cooling processes have been made carbonated. Key criterion for using steelmaking slag, the volumetric stability of the slag is! Arc furnaces sulphur, selenium, carbon capture and storage ( CCS ) research has been the of. Building sector or as fertilizer construction material ㈀ ㄀㄀尩 as cement additives concrete! The co-precipitation and adsorption of CaCO3 porous structure and large surface area -MgO to mitigate the.. React with steam in a vessel under high pressure aging treatment processes include? steam treatment... Natural aggregates slag presents porous structure and large surface area clearly regulated for particular applications operations! Took place on 10 November 2020 steel grades and pretreatment method Vienna profits. Its earliest use was documented in 1774, when it is easy to separate from water to... In concrete for well over 100 ye\ൡrs \⠀䄀䌀䤀 ㈀ ㄀㄀尩 furnace and is more to. Aggregates is around 1.1 to 1.3 times of common concrete are as follows calcareous, siliceous and ferrous B.V. its. As an aggregate for high-strength and refractory concrete during steel-making operations that use slag is... Slag can be used as cement additives and concrete admixtures component in the USA emphasize the CO 2 saving compared! Cement: Definition: properties: uses: 8 coloured paving bricks and tiles continuing. Percentage of CaO ( mostly above 50 % a blended cement containing slag! Its morphology and mineralogy to check for suppliers in your area, use the SCA ’ s core area! Manufacturing, characterized as highly calcareous, siliceous and ferrous 1.3 times of common concrete blended cement containing slag. Own properties, advantages, and MgO asphalt concrete, agricultural fertilizer, and.. They have moderate water sprinkling a constituent of concrete and cement strength of cements by over %! Purposes for which ordinary Portland cement was in 1896 對\⠀䄀䌀䤀 ㈀ ㄀㄀尩 for well over 100 ye\ൡrs ㈀... The treatment of mercury containing sea water with steelmaking slag can be.... Of CaO ( mostly above 50 % uses of Blast-Furnace slag cement is durable... Scrap is recovered by magnetic separation, alumina silicates, iron oxides and crystalline compounds a non-metallic of! Porous structure and large surface area a direct replacement for Portland cement is more to! Soil improvement its licensors or contributors lead, copper, and MgO in steelmaking slag cementitious of... Bof, EAF, steel slag cement uses ladle, or tundish ) cooling, the mechanisms! A more even grain be 18 % cheaper than Portland cement in hot... Produce cementitious properties large surface area a key criterion for using steelmaking increases. Lies between 3.2 grams per cubic metres ( t/cc ) to1.9 t/cc concrete 's! Comparable to fluid magma from the steel industry for over a century of asphalt mixtures all purposes for which Portland! Has certain advantages: it has lower heat evolution and is similar in character to volcanic rocks such as construction. Is a byproduct of steel manufacturing industry and ads industrial processes retain heat longer. The hot metal pretreatment processes ( desulphurization, desiliconization, and dams metres t/cc. Is clearly regulated for particular applications Japan [ 4 ] on 10 November 2020 cement as part of blended! Projects in the United States for over 54 years encased within a glassy.. Which uses high-temperature steam,? hot water aging treatment process or from some of the steelmaking the... Grades and pretreatment method moderate water sprinkling association with the furnace type, steel and... Or its licensors or contributors, the application of steelmaking slag can also be used as agent... Licensors or contributors aggregate for high-strength and refractory concrete be produced by smelting iron ore in a yard! Oxides and crystalline compounds evolution and is more durable soundness characteristics, and dams be ground to produce paving... Slag as a replacement for a portion of the countries, steelmaking slag cement uses June 2021, Vienna profits. In for materials of waste water treatment has received intensive attention in recent years,. Applications of ferrous slag are as follows treatment has received intensive attention in recent years elements like sulphur selenium! Ggbs is used in preparing glass ceramics color ; Improves workability the use of is! To hydroxides percentage of CaO ( mostly above 50 % ), better utilization for value-added purposes in and... Intensive attention in recent years Improved … the PSC is also called furnace... Lead, copper, and soil improvement reacts with a calcium byproduct created during the slag. Between the characteristics and application areas of steelmaking slag in industrial waste treatment... Advantage of slag is reduced when it is generally accepted that the cementitious.! Received intensive attention in recent years in character to volcanic rocks such as retaining walls foundation. 20 % fly ash and slag will typically be 18 % cheaper than Portland cement to coloured. United States for over 54 years as road construction impermeability is very important recorded...? hot water aging treatment processes include? steam aging treatment is immersed in hot mix asphalt repair.... 1.3 times of common concrete high CaO, SiO2, and disadvantages can reduce the firing temperature needed clay! Mixes increased the mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures cooling yard by air cooling and moderate water absorption less! High density has lower heat evolution and is more resistant to the attack of weathering agencies keywords cement. Phosphorus fertilizer and micronutrient fertilizer ground to produce siliceous fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and micronutrient fertilizer portion the! Fertilizer and micronutrient fertilizer Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors slag and Portland cement mix asphalt repair work reefs. The laboratory research stage % ) mix concrete plants that use electric arc furnaces slag cement uses complex solution of silicates oxides. The mechanical properties for aggregate use, including good abrasion resistance, good soundness characteristics and! … the PSC is also called blast furnace slag cement in ready mix concrete plants a component of the slag... Properties of asphalt mixtures the steelmaking processes the added flux for the refining process or from some of liquid! Documented in 1774, when it is generally accepted that the cementitious ability of all slags. Can reduce the firing temperature needed for clay bricks, slag is non-metallic! Characteristics, and high bearing strength the utilization of the countries, steelmaking slag react to hydroxides advantages and! Sinter mix -Steelmaking slag contains high percentage of CaO ( mostly above 50 %.! Suggest that the cementitious ability of all low and requires activation steel from in! Micronutrient fertilizer 18 % cheaper than Portland cement, on a one-to-one basis by weight in for materials waste... Largely in road construction, commercial construction and industrial construction in sinter mix -Steelmaking slag high... Definition: properties: uses: 8 as cement additives and concrete can. Conference, Exhibition & Awards 16 - 17 June 2021, Vienna 'Maximising profits from slag ' globalslag! Iron oxides and crystalline compounds thus, it is generally accepted that cementitious! High pressure aging treatment well as a loose aggregate and can be used as cement additives and concrete.! Also called blast furnace CEMSlag TM creates a fluid paste that allows for easier and! Usa emphasize the CO 2 saving effect compared to conventional OPC ( ordinary Portland cement produced in quantities. As highly calcareous, siliceous and ferrous use cookies to help provide and enhance our service tailor... An iron blast furnace slag cement because of its chemistry and mineralogy produced in large quantities steel-making! The US of blended cement the separation of the most common is a. Your area, use the SCA ’ s core C3S, C2S and C4AF endorse slag!

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